Abstract: The discoveries of more than 400 neutron stars as radio pulsars continue to provide an intellectual challenge to physicists and astronomers with diverse backgrounds. I review some of the ideas that have been proposed for the structure of neutron star interiors, and concentrate on the theoretical arguments for the existence of superfluidity in neutron stars. I also discuss the implications of neutron superfluidity and proton superconductivity for the rotational dynamics of pulsars, and review arguments that have been proposed for observable effects of superfluidity on the timing history of pulsars and perhaps other neutron stars.
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